Design and Manufacture a Portable Medical Instrument Based on Optical Sensor to Measure the SpO2 and Heart Rate
SpO2 is one of the vital parameters of the human body that indicates the amount of oxygen saturated in the blood. The amount of blood oxygen saturation is related to blood hemoglobin (Hb), which is bonded to oxygen, which ultimately converts to oxyhemoglobin (HbO2). The measured level of blood oxygen saturation is expressed as a percentage, which is in the normal state between 90% to 97%. Heart rate is also a vital parameter for heart function, which is a unit of Beats Per Minute (BPM).The heart rate is derived from heart pacemaker cells in the sinoatrial node (SA node), which produces electrical waves that pump blood. The heart rate in a normal person is between 60 to 100 bpm. In this paper, a medical instrumentation is designed to measure SpO2 and heart rate based on the ATmega16 microcontroller and displays it on the LCD.